EXPRESSION OF INTEREST TO DOCUMENT THE FACE OF INEQUALITY IN ZAMBIA- VIDEO DOCUMENTARY
1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) is a diaconal organisation mandated by churches and Christian organisations in Norway to work with people around the world to eradicate poverty and injustice. In 2016-2018, NCA’s long-term development work resulted in long-lasting change for people in over 30 countries. Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) and Dan Church Aid (DCA) work together in Zambia within the framework of a Joint Country Programme (JCP). The merger of the two organizations took place in 2011 and NCA is the lead agency for the programme in Zambia. The JCP strategic framework is implemented in partnership with local church and faith based and other civil society organizations and networks. JCP works with the two strategic priority themes: Gender Justice and Economic Justice and is operationalised through three thematic programmes: Climate Smart Economic Empowerment (EE), Gender Justice (GJ), free of Gender Based Violence (GBV) and Fighting Inequality formerly called Resource Governance (RG). NCA 2020 to 2024 on Fighting Inequality Programme builds upon the foundations of both the 2010 to 2015 (Economic Justice) and the 2016 to 2019 (Resource Governance) strategic periods. The global objective of the 2020 to 2024 Strategic plan is to achieve “Fair and equitable finance and redistribution of resources”, with two sub-goals (i) Duty bearers are influenced to increase finance for and spending to reduce poverty and inequality and (ii) Rights-holders are mobilized for just resource governance. The work has a strong rights-based approach. Therefore the JCP Fighting Inequality strategic Initiative will contribute to the NCA global goal of a fair and equitable finance and redistribution of resources. JCP work will directly contribute to SDGs 1 (No Poverty), SDG10 (Reduced Inequality), SDG16 (Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions) and SDG17 (Partnerships for the Goals). To demonstrate the realities and face of inequality and poverty in Zambia, NCA endeavours to conduct a documentary that would demonstrate the various forms of inequalities in Zambia and be used as an advocacy tool.
Equality was identified as a fundamental value in the millennium declaration adopted by the UN in 2000. Human Rights principles such as universality, participation, or non-discrimination on one hand and the set of individual social, economic, civil, cultural, and political rights on the other provide an unequivocal normative framework and guidance for the eradication of inequalities. States have an obligation to take proactive measures that address the drivers of inequality and ensure equality of access, opportunity, and outcomes. However, in Zambia, it is commonly acknowledged that consistent and strong macroeconomic growth has not been accompanied by related reductions in poverty and inequality. Despite registering a robust GDP growth averaging over 5.5% annually over the last decade and dropping to about 4.0% in 2018, poverty levels remain stubbornly high. In fact, evidence continues to show that economic growth in Zambia is not translating to poverty reduction. This is largely because of the capital-intensive sectors it concentrates in. Additionally, the concentration of economic activity in urban areas and its inability to expand especially to the small-holder agriculture sector is exacerbating the situation. This raises the question of how and to what extent persistent poverty has shaped and driven inequality both in terms of access to opportunities and in terms of outcomes.
It is worth noting that Zambia’s GINI index has remained high at 57.1 (World Bank, 2015). The 2015 Living Conditions Monitoring Survey report revealed that the gap between the rich and the poor in Zambia is widening with Gini coefficient now standing at 0.69 up from 0.60 in 2010; much higher than the African average of approximately 0.43. Furthermore, two thirds of the Zambian population live in extreme poverty, the majority of whom live in the rural areas. According to the LCMS of 2015, extreme poverty in the target project areas for this project stand as,58.7% in Eastern Province, 47.3% in Southern Province,46.1% in North-Western Province and 81.1% in Luapula province. In addition, the 2015 Living Conditions survey, indicates that 54.4% of the country’s population is poor, 76.6% of the population in rural areas is poor with 23.4% of the urban population being poor. Of the ten provinces in Zambia, Western Province has the highest population of the poor at 82.2% with Lusaka province having the lowest at 20.2%. Despite the notable growth in the Zambian economy over the last fifteen years, inequality outcomes however have not been very favourable. The 2015 living condition monitoring survey shows that income inequality in Zambia as measured by the per capita income based Gini-coefficient increased sharply from 0.70 in 1996 to 0.75 in 2004, before declining slightly to 0.74 in 2015. The report further notes that while poor households have been catching up with middle income households, the gap between middle and high income households has increased. Increased income inequality thus slowed the reduction in poverty derived from economic growth. To address income inequality and poverty levels, policies should focus on creating broader access to wage employment, addressing inequality among wage earners, promoting agricultural productivity and better integrating policies aimed at reducing poverty and inequality such as social protection. Government also needs to reduce wastage in the use of public resources. Inequality in Zambia is also revealed in the marked differences between urban and rural areas in terms of economic and social status with rural areas bearing the brunt of income inequalities. Income inequality is also pronounced along gender lines with women earning lower than men. With the advent of COVID 19 there’s increased vulnerability of those most socially and economically deprived and this comes with a lot of challenges and effects in people’s lives widening the inequality gap that already exists in the country between the rich and the poor, Men and women, those in rural areas and those in urban areas and children.
Based on the background above the documentary will focus on Four main aspects or forms of inequality:
a. Income Inequality
Income inequality is a major challenge that countries face world over. In the sub-Saharan Africa 54% of income is in the hands of only 10%. This reveals the unequal distribution of income in Africa. In Zambia the situation is no different. Recent estimates indicate that Zambia’s Gini coefficient currently stands at 0.69 , making Zambia one of the most unequal countries in the world. The Gini coefficient is a summary measure of how inequitably incomes are distributed and ranges between 0 and 1 (or 0% and 100%) with 0 representing complete income equality and 1 representing complete income inequality. Income inequality is a growing concern in Zambia and rightly so. More worryingly is the recent slowdown in economic growth, the economy’s impressive growth rates of 6% that lasted almost a decade have been on a decline since 2015 averaging a paltry 4%. The slowed economic growth implies that the number of poor people may increase.
b. Inequality Between Urban and Rural
Zambia’s rural poverty has remained high at 76.6 %, in both rural and urban households, poverty levels are highest among female-headed households, with extreme poverty levels of over 60 per cent in rural areas and over 15 per cent in urban areas. Except for the moderately poor and non-poor households, poverty head count levels for female-headed households have been highest at more than 62 per cent, with extreme poverty estimated at nearly 50 per cent, and with insignificant change between 2006 and 2010.11 In addition, in urban areas, migrants and refugees are commonly found among the poorest households, particularly those in informal settlements in and around mining areas.
c. Gender Inequality
Gender cuts across all aspects of life spheres reflecting different power relations between male and female. Poverty for instance carries a feminine connotation with 56.7% people in female headed household being poor compared to 53.8% of male headed households. This is because women have an unequal access to economic resources compared to males and thus unemployment is higher at 41% compared to males at 33%. Interventions such as Women play a critical role in sustaining the productive sectors such as agriculture, commerce and trade (women supply 60.6 percent of labour force to agriculture) but continue to perform poorly almost in all indicators as they have unequal access to and control of resources, especially productive resources such as land and financial capital. This limits women’s abilities to move to higher levels of empowerment beyond subsistence. The attainment of equitable national development cannot be achieved without interventions to empower women and men for equitable access to and control of productive and reproductive resources. Politically, under representation of women continues to characterise all levels of governance structures in the country with serious consequences on poverty levels for women. Furthermore, unequal power relations expose women to Gender Based Violence, GBV due to their dependence on men for their survival. The Police Victim Support Unit reports that number of reported cases of GBV as of May 2014 increased by 4% from 12,924 in 2012 to 14097 in 2013. Gender inequality in Zambia exists in various forms. Women and girls face many challenges which affect their employment opportunities and access to productive resources such as education, health and finance. Inequality adversely affects gender, the gap between women and men continues to grow. Despite the womenfolk constituting the largest proportion of the economically active population at 51.6% compared to men at 48.4%, the proportion of women in formal employment falls below that of men. In 2017, 67% of formal jobs belonged to the male folk compared to only 33% that went to the female folk (CSO, 2018). In the context of COVID 19 they have been reports of increased Gender Based Violence against women and children during covid19 and in most cases it’s in densely populated areas. Women and children have been adversely affected by covid19 as the closing of schools means children staying home and, in some cases, they end up spending more time with the perpetrators. Workwise, most women lost employment because the majority in the informal sector are women and some of them work either as house helps or waitresses.
d. Unequal access to Social Protection
Zambia has an overarching National Social Protection Policy adopted in 2014. This policy establishes the government’s dedicated efforts to ensure that the role of social protection in pro-poor growth remains central. In addition, the government’s medium- and longer-term planning frameworks take cognizance of the strategic role of social protection in addressing, equity, human rights, poverty, and vulnerability within the national development planning processes. Further, in recent years the Government of Zambia has made significant strides in the implementation of the vision of the National Social Protection Policy (NSPP), particularly in the area of non-contributory social protection programs. The government flagship social assistance program, namely the Social Cash Transfers has been scaled up nation-wide, to reach over 500,000 vulnerable households. Furthermore, initiatives to promote access to education of vulnerable learners such as the keeping Girls in School and Home-Grown School Meals programs are also being gradually scaled up. The Supporting Women’s Livelihood initiative has been launched. The Public Welfare Assistance Scheme, the Farmers’ Input Support Programme, and the Food Security Pack program are going through important reform and redesign processes.
The Seventh National Development Plan (7NDP) reinforces and extends the NSPP vision of a better integrated social protection system. The cluster structure of the 7NDP calls for cross-sectoral collaboration for long-lasting poverty, inequality, and vulnerability reduction. The high-level commitment to reduce poverty and extreme poverty by 20% by 2021, is translated into concrete targets, amongst others, to increase coverage of social assistance from 40% to 70% of the poor, and to increase the proportion of gross domestic product (GDP) allocated to basic social protection programs from 0.7% to 1.7%.
Despite these developments the sector faces challenges relating to inadequate awareness among beneficiaries and communities on their social protection rights, social protection is recognized as a Universal Human Right in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, however, there is still insufficient awareness and understanding of social protection amongst beneficiaries and community members. There are also insufficient debates on the social protection programs, this situation has a potential negative impact on the uptake of social protection services, additionally, lack of awareness limits the beneficiary voices in the implementation of social protection programs including effective monitoring and delivery of services among beneficiary communities. Awareness of social protection rights is key because beneficiaries will be empowered to understand their entitlements and will be able to claim their rights. Beneficiaries will also add their voices in the planning and implementation of social protection programs. Furthermore, the majority of the Zambian people have been greatly affected and trapped into poverty with the advent of the covid19 pandemic, this calls for more concerted efforts to try and cushion the impact of covid19 on people’s livelihood and hence ring-fencing the social protection programs.
3. Objectives and target group
- To document the face of inequalities in Zambia and show how its manifest targeting JCP operational areas in Zambia. The target is government who are the decision makers as well as civil society organisations that are stakeholders in issues of inequality so that they can speak louder against these inequalities on various platforms in order to prompt the decision makers to address the growing problem. Additionally, RHs will targeted to give a real-life perspective to the documentary
- Document real life experience of people as they are affected by poverty and inequalities This will entail interviewing and documenting their struggle the people who are directly affected by these inequalities for example, teachers, parents and children in rural areas as well as women who have been affected by inequality in the face of Covid 19. The interviews will be comparative so we will interview those in rural and those in urban, men and women, Civil Society, The Ministry of Community Development, Ministry of Education etc
- Produce a 24-minute documentary that can be used as an advocacy tool at national, Regional and international level.
- Produce 3 –4 minutes thematic (As described above) videos for social media campaigns
- Produce a 2 to 4 minutes Promo which is transcribed to be played on various social media platform for the full documentary.
NCA will own the rights to the raw footage for use in their campaigns.
Interested individual /consultants who meet the requirements must submit Expression of Interest (EOI) which should include the following:
1. Bidders should submit technical and financial proposals separately by clearly marking them as such, in both original and copy form.
2. Demonstrated previous experience
3. Bids must be accompanied by certificates of registration for companies, VAT clearance, TIN Registration Certificate and any other supporting letter/s concerning whether they have paid the taxes for government.
4. Bidders should submit their offers in wax-sealed envelopes to JCP’s Procurement Officer/Office Receptionist on 4th December ,2020. or before or email on Procurement.Zambia@nca.no
5. Bidders must submit two (2) copy of the proposal, original and a copy, marking them as such to: –
JCP Zambia, Leopards Hill Road C/13/488a P.O. Box 30703, Kabulonga. Lusaka Zambia
Telephone: +26 (0) 211 264 540/ +26 (0) 260 976, Fax: +26 (0) 211 260 974
Send your EOI by email to: Procurement.Zambia@nca.no
Deadline: 4th December, 2020.
How to Apply
To apply for this job email your details to Procurement.Zambia@nca.no